The book is written by Bill Walsh – San Francisco’s 49ers Football team coach who transformed the worst performing team of its era to the best performing team. The book talks about changes he brought in as well as his philosophy of leadership which is generic enough to apply outside of American Football. He is also known as the creator of West Coast Offense.

He brought in a Standards of Performance sets the expectations from everyone who was part of 49ers.

Process vs Result

  1. Aim for a Standard of Performance (which is absolute) vs winning (which is relative to others).
  2. “Process” of improvement leads to “result” of victory and not vice-versa.
  3. Focus on process which produces results and not on results.
  4. Promotions/wins/sales quotas are results, they do not provide information about performance. And its important to dig into performance to find truth hidden behind these results.

Failure

Failure is integral part of success. Knowing when it happens and what to do when it happens is the first step towards success.

Do’s

  1. Do Expect  defeat
  2. Do stop looking at past failures
  3. Do give yourself a little recovery time
  4. Do tell yourself to stand up and fight again
  5. Do begin planning for next battle

Dont’s

  1. Don’t blame on others
  2. Don’t expect sympathy
  3. Don’t ask “why me”
  4. Don’t bellyache
  5. Don’t keep accepting condolences

On organization culture

  1. Know it all bull headed people are dangerous.
  2. In an organization, its not just important for individuals to know their own role but they should be aware of roles of other people as well.
  3. Success belongs to everyone and so as the failure.
  4. Never let your colleagues down, you win with them, you lose with them. Therefore, defend them.
  5. Winners act like winners before they are.
  6. Hostile relations are toxic – one enemy does more damage than good of 100 friends. Enemies consume time, energy and attention – all limited resources.
  7. An organization emulates leader’s work ethics.
  8. A little humor is important to keep a check on stress and anxiety.

On success

  1. Success disease – Winning knocks off emotional balance and that’s why repeated success is difficult.
  2. Being aspirational is good but commitment and sacrifice is needed to attain success.

On decision making

  1. Opinions, discussions and variance of ideas are good but once decision is made discussion should be over.
    followers who work for a leader offer their opinion, the leader is the one who should make a decision.
  2. A leader must make decision based on “sound logic”, any reactionary reasons (eg. to prove oneself right or to prove someone wrong) are usually bad.

On hiring

  1. Hire person for his expertise and not just past relation.
  2. Hire high energy and motivated individuals.
  3. Being able to communicate and express oneself is equally important.
  4. Hire people who will be loyal to you.
  5. Choose people who have “character” and not “characters”.

On firing

  1. People past their peak have to leave, it hurts but organization comes first.
  2. Be ready to deal with people who breach the policies, firing sucks but sometimes there are no alternates.
  3. Attitude matters as much as talent, sometimes, talented individuals with bad attitude must be let go off.
  4. People who don’t have will power to succeed will fail, better let them leave early on.

On conventional wisdom

  1. Conventional wisdom leads to conventional results.
  2. Success does not care which road you chose.
  3. Remove fear of unknown, take bold steps as long as they are well thought out.
  4. Desperation should not be driving innovation (that’s the last resort).
  5. Be obsessive about looking for upside in downside.
  6. Don’t mistake activity for action.

On leadership

  1. Give credit where its due, fewer things offer greater return on investment than praise.
  2. Be prepared – visualize future, think about all possible situations, prepare your responses for them in advance.
  3. Responses are temporary – Make moves to counter competitor but remember that competitor is going to come back with counter move soon, so, be prepared for that.
  4. A leader cannot be casual in any area of life, all his moves must be well thought of with great attention to details.
  5. A leader must have strength of will to carry out his decisions and to be able to stick with them in adverse situations.
  6. Focus on important problems for the organization rather than peripheral stuff (stuff which does not add to bottom line should not get too much attention).
  7. A good leader produces self-sustaining organization which functions well even in his absence.
  8. People are motivated only by their inner voice, teach a new inner voice to followers which will motivate them.
  9. The focus should be on motivating people to do “their best” rather than “crush the opponent” – though occasionally “crush the opponent” works too.
  10. Be wary of titles (“genius” in case of Bill Walsh), they haunt you later when performance goes down.
  11. Criticize people for “current” mistakes (and not the ones committed earlier). Also, give some positive feedback afterwards.
  12. When describing expectations from employees, don’t be subtle, be explicit and set the record straight.
  13. Big ears (better listener) are better than big egos – Listen, Learn, Lead.
  14. Be the leader – without the formal title (titles produces hierarchy and reduce communication)
  15. Be unpredictable – People become comfortable with predictable leaders, unpredictability/uncertainty allows a leader to prevent people from settling in comfort zone.
  16. A leader treats his people like his family members – money alone cannot motivate people for long.
  17. Teaching is important part of a leader’s life – Having a passion for teaching, expertise in the subject, being able to communicate clearly his ideas and have persistence to teach are important.
  18. The bottom 20% can determine the outcome – Ensure that they are motivated.
  19. Avoid dance of death – If the failure is imminent, don’t give in, keep fighting, lose with dignity.
  20. Tell people – “I believe in you”
  21. Don’t push people to their limits all the time, try to maintain a sustainable level of performance and keep the reserves ready for emergency.
  22. Keep superiors informed of your activities – Err on the side of over communication.
  23. Make your mentors and learn from them – A good leader is always learning.
  24. A leader aims for perfection, he does not settle for 99%.
  25. A leader focuses on performance rather than getting distracted by rumors and gossips.
  26. A leader ensures that his followers can advance their career, he does not backstab them for his personal or organizational gains.
  27. A leader succeeds by meticulous planning and not by hoping for a surprise (though the execution appears as a surprise to outside observers).
  28. When a leader makes a mistakes, he admits it and moves on.
  29. While judging a person, do not ignore the context.
  30. A pretty package cannot sell a poor product.
  31. A leader is discreet about whom he confides his secrets in, crying on wrong shoulder will have negative repercussions.

13 characteristics of a leader

  1. Be yourself – Follow your way of doing things
  2. Be committed to excellence – Focus must be on doing things at highest possible level of performance
  3. Be positive – Spend more time on “Do” than “Don’t”
  4. Be prepared – Prepare for all expected situations even undesirable ones
  5. Be detail oriented – But don’t bury yourself into them
  6. Be organized – great organization is a trademark of great organization
  7. Be accountable
  8. Be near sighted and far sighted
  9. Be fair – to people
  10. Be firm – on values and principles
  11. Be flexible – to adjust to new situations and find their solutions
  12. Believe in yourself – have self confidence
  13. Be a leader – Demonstrate integrity, intelligence and team first attributes